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Типы коммерческих предприятий
1. Types of commercial firm are sole proprietorship, partnership and corporation.
Sole proprietorship. It is the most common type of business in many western countries. It offers to be boss, run the business, make the decisions and keep the profits. You can start or you can stop your business whenever you like. You do everything by yourself. You decide on your vacation, hours, salary, hiring and firing.
Partnership. It is an association of 2 or more people to carry on business for profit. Any business may have the form of partnership, for example, in such professional fields as medicine, law, accounting, stockbrokerage. Having a partner, you do not need to do everything yourself.
Corporation. A business corporation is a group of persons authorized to act as an individual for business purposes. Owners of corporation are stockholders. To form a corporation one should apply for a corporate charter. Obtaining the charter the stockholders, as owners, hold a meeting to organize the corporation, elect the Board of Directors and choose the company’s officers.
2. This form of business has flourished over the years because of the opportunities it offers to be boss,
run the business, make the decisions and keep the profits. You can start or you can stop your business whenever you like. There is no need to consult partners or a Board of Director. You do everything by yourself. You decide on your vacation, hours, salary, hiring and firing.
3. Disadvantage of sole proprietorship is unlimited liability. It means that you are responsible for all your
4.Unlimited liability means that you are responsible for all your business debts.
5.Partnership is an association of 2 or more people to carry on business for profit. Any business may have the form of partnership, for example, in such professional fields as medicine, law, accounting, stockbrokerage. Partnership offers opportunities often not available to the one-person business: more capital, more skills and ideas. Having a partner, you do not need to do everything yourself. And, a last, you can take a little vacation without having to shut down the business. Partnerships have their drawbacks as well. One is unlimited liability. Besides, there is more paperwork. Inter-personal relations with your partner or partners may require both time and tact.
6.A business corporation is a group of persons authorized to act as an individual for business purposes. Owners of corporation are stockholders (also called shareholders).
7.To form a corporation one should apply for a corporate charter. Obtaining the charter the stockholders, as owners, hold a meeting to organize the corporation elect the Board of Directors and choose the company’s officers.
8.The most important advantage of the corporate is limited liability, which means that business is legally separated from its owners. If your corporation does not pay its debts, the creditors cannot usually get their money from your personal assets.
9. Types of commercial corporate are joint venture, merger and acquisition or takeover. Joint Venture is two or more companies agreed to collaborate and jointly invest in a separate business project. This type of deal allows the partners to combine their strengths in one specific area. Merger is two companies, often in the same industry, come together to form one company. Companies merge for many reasons, for example, to increase market share and cut costs in certain areas, such as research and development. Takeover is one company accumulates enough of another company’s shares to take over control and ownership.
10. Governmental corporations are educational, religions, charitable institutions. As a rule such corporations are nonprofit and they do not issue stocks.
1. There are two main types of exchanges – the Commodity Exchange and the Stock Exchange. Stock Exchange is the marketplace where listed securities can be traded efficiently. There are domestic equities and overseas equities, gilts, bonds and other.
2. Commodity Exchanges usually deal in raw materials and some items of produce, such as cotton, wheat, vegetable, oils ets. All type of commodity may be sold on Commodity Exchange.
3. Prices at exchanges are determined by a complex interaction of factors. It may be said that the main factors governing prices are the interaction of supply and demand, the quality of the goods offered, the terms of contracts.
4. The goods like fur, tea, bristles, spices are sold at auctions. Horses or animals are also sold and bought at auctions. Trade by tenders is frequently used in developing countries for construction work or for delivery of goods.
5. To be admitted to the exchange, company applies for a place on the “Official List”. To do this, a company must give as complete picture of itself as possible: its trading history and financial record, management and business prospects. Thereby companies should have obtained an official Stock Exchange quotation.
6. The stock market is the financial centre of the country, because it reflects any change in the economy. It is sensitive to interest rates, inflation and political events. Also the stock market is a control centre because it is here that the gain businesses and institutions come to make and change their financial commitments. Also it is a place of individual opportunity.
7. To become an Exchange member you should buy a seat. Before you are permitted to buy a seat you must pass a test that strictly checks your knowledge of the securities industry as well as your experience. To be admitted to the exchange, company applies for a place on the “Official List”. To do this, a company must give as complete picture of itself as possible: its trading history and financial record, management and business prospects. Thereby companies should have obtained an official Stock Exchange quotation.
8. Only those companies which apply for a place on the Official List”.
9. Domestic equities and overseas equities, gilts, bonds are listed and traded on the Stock Exchange. Domestic equities and overseas equities – ordinary shares, issued by domestic or overseas companies. Gilts – securities, issued by any country’s government to raise money to fund any shortfall in public expenditures. Bonds – fixed-interest stocks, usually issued by companies or local authorities. They entitle the owner to regular interest payments and the repayment of a fixed sum at a given date in the future.
10. Stocks may be dividing in listed securities and unlisted securities on basic categories of investment. Listed securities – for companies which have obtained an official Stock Exchange quotation. Unlisted securities – for smaller companies not wishing to acquire a full Stock Exchange listing.
1. The British Banking system includes savings, the commercial and the merchant banks. Savings banks keep money safe until it is needed. The commercial banks, owned by shareholders and working for profit, offer many services. The merchant banks are in many ways different from commercial banks as they deal with mainly businesses.
2. The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom. It was founded in 1694 by Royal Charter. It acts as the bank for the Government and works in close cooperation with the other banks: as the central note-issuing authority and as agent of the Government for important financial operations. The Bank also undertakes management of the National Debt and the administration of exchange control. Thus it is through the Bank of England that the Government’s monetary policy is implemented.
3. Savings banks keep money safe until it is needed. The National Savings Bank receives money from its customers in two distinct forms: on current account and on deposit account. With a current account, a customer can issue personal cheques. No interest is paid by the bank on this type of account. With a deposit account however, the customer undertakes to leave his money in the bank for a specified period of time. Interest is paid on this money.
4. The commercial banks receive money from savers on current and deposit accounts and in their turn lend the deposited money to customers who need capital. This activity earns interest for the bank and this interest is almost always at a higher rate than any interest which the bank pays to its depositors. In this way the bank makes its main profit.
5. The merchant banks deal mainly with businesses. Their services include: issuing shares for companies; arranging international payments and finance; making large loans to UK and foreign businesses; taking large deposits from businesses and managing investments for businesses and other organizations.
6. There are following means of goods payment and service payment: current account or paying by cheques, credits cards, regular payments, traveller’s cheques. Paying by cheques is for a customer a new way of spending his money using a cheques-book instead of carrying a lot of cash around. If he sees something he wants to buy he makes out a cheque backed up by the cheque-card. The shopkeeper’s bank will pass the cheque on to the customer’s bank and the money will be transferred from one account to the other. The most widely used credit cards in Britain are provided by companies owned by the banks. The customer does not need to carry cash or a cheque-book. Instead he uses his credit card which allows him to spend up to a limit which has been agreed. At the end of a month the card-holder receives a statement showing what he has spent. Regular payments – there are some payments that have to be made regularly, say, every month such as insurance premiums or the rent for your house, for instance. A customer signs what is called a standing order or a direct debit mandate, and the bank sees that the regular bills is paid every month, providing of course, that a customer keeps enough money in his account. Traveller’s cheques – when you go abroad the bank provides foreign currency or traveller’s cheques which accepted by foreign banks, hotels, shops in almost every country in the world. In my opinion, the most convenient ways of paying for things and services are by using cheques and credit cards. Because the more people use cheques to pay for things the less need there is to move cash around from one place to another. And using credit card is easier than running around the town paying everything by cash, especially as many employers pay wages straight into your bank account.
7. There are following means of credit arrangement: personal loan, credit cards and overdraft. Personal loan – the most common way of borrowing money from a bank is to open a loan account. The customer takes the money he needs from the account and agrees to pay back so much every month. Credit cards - the most widely used credit cards in Britain are provided by companies owned by the banks. The customer does not need to carry cash or a cheque-book. Instead he uses his credit card which allows him to spend up to a limit which has been agreed. At the end of a month the card-holder receives a statement showing what he has spent. And overdraft – this means that the customer can draw more money out of his ordinary current account than he actually has in it up to an agreed limit.
8. The banks can help to make it easier to pay other bills as well. There are some payments that have to be made regularly, say, every month such as insurance premiums or the rent for your house, for instance. A customer signs what is called a standing order or a direct debit mandate, and the bank sees that the regular bills is paid every month, providing of course, that a customer keeps enough money in his account.
9. Cash now can be obtained from automated telling machine or cash dispensers by using special cash-cards together with a private code or personal identification number. It savers a lot of time. By using special terminals customers will be able to pay for their purchases by transferring money directly from their bank account to the shop’s account.
10. When you go abroad the bank provides foreign currency or traveller’s cheques which accepted by foreign banks, hotels, shops in almost every country in the world. If the cheques are stolen or lost, provided the customer has kept a note of a series or numbers, then the advantage of the traveller’s cheque is that the bank will replace it.
1. Marketing is a new science. Marketing is the art of finding out what the other person wants and then manufacturing it for him. An important role of marketing is to understand what the needs of customers are and then to undertake the necessary actions to satisfy those needs better than competitors do.
2. Marketing is guided by two basic principles: the satisfaction of customer needs and profitability. The ultimate objective of a business corporation is to generate profits. Satisfying customer needs is a necessary condition to achieve this objective, but it may not be sufficient. The corporation must select not only the customer needs which it will satisfy, but also the actions that it should undertake to this end, in such a way that the firm is profitable.
3. Marketing includes all the business activities connected with the movement of goods and services from producers to consumers. Sometimes it is called distribution. On the one hand, marketing is made up of such activities as transporting, storing and selling goods, and on the other hand it includes such marketing operations as product planning, marketing research, pricing and promotion selling.
4. In marketing it is customary to organize various sectors into three broad groups: consumer goods, industrial goods and services. Consumer goods are products bought by individual consumers and households. For example, soft drinks, detergents, pharmaceuticals, electric appliances and automobiles belong to this category. Industrial goods are products bought by corporations or institutions such as schools or hospitals. Computers, electronic components and machine tools belong to this group. Another expression used for this category is “business-to-business” marketing. In services sector, what is bought by a client is mainly not a tangible product but a service. Banking, insurance, airlines and telecommunications belong to this group.
5. The corporation must select not only the customer needs which it will satisfy, but also the actions that it should undertake to this end, in such a way that the firm is profitable.
6. Process of marketing begins with marketing research. It is very important for a marketer and helps him to determine what customer needs are. The most important branch of marketing research is demand analysis. Marketing experts have developed techniques for determining the needs of prospective customers. It is done by way of market segmentation. Every market can be divided into segments or, in other words, into separate groups of consumers. Use is made of such demographic factors like age, income, educational background, occupation, size of family, type of home etc. Then there are psychographic factors: the customers, opinion and interest, hobbies, favourite sports, etc. Market segmentation facilitates product development, pricing decisions, distribution and promotion.
7. If you want to win a market you should be guided by four controllable factors – the Four P, s: product, price, place and promotion, so the item made for sale, how much it will cost, where it will be sold and what publicity it will get. The product must always perform the function for which it is intended and meet quality standards. All products and all services have prices. Place includes location of production and distribution. Promotion includes all forms of marketing communication: advertising, direct mail, customer service, image special events, sales etc.
8. All products and services have what is traditionally called “product life cycles”. The stages of the product life cycle are: introduction, growth, maturity and decline. The length of product life cycle depends, first of all, upon the intensity of competition and the extent to which the new product is an innovation or modification.
9. The price depends on different things such as credit terms, delivery, quality and others. Prices can be determined in different ways. For example, the prices for agricultural products can be decided in large central markets where forces of supply and demand exist. This is pure price competition. The prices on industrial goods (iron, steel, etc.) are usually decided by large companies. Prices also can be set by the government. If demand increases, prices rise, profits expand and new investments are attracted.
10. Promotion includes all forms of marketing communication: advertising, direct mail, customer service, image special events, sales etc. Promotion is the most complex thing – how to select and divide your market according to the type of product, its price and where it will be available. Each group of population has its own values to which you want your product to appeal.
1. Tatarstan is one of the most industrialized republics in terms of population and economic potential. As the Tatar Soviet Socialist Republic it was established in May, 1920 on the territory of the former Kazan Province. Seventy years later, on August 30, 1990 it became the sovereign Republic of Tatarstan.
2. Tatarstan has an overall area of 67.8 sq.km; the total population of the Republic exceeds 3.5 million. It is situated in the Middle Volga region between Central Russia and the Urals. Its size is about equal to Switzerland and Belgium combined. There are 19 cities and towns and more than 3,000 settlements in the Republic.
3. Its territory is divided into several economic regions. Old industrial Northwest region with the Kazan - Zelenodolsk agglomeration as its centre. Major industries of the region are machine-building, instrument-making, chemical and light industries. New industrial Northeast region with the Naberezhniye Cheiny - Nizhnekamsk agglomeration as its centre. Major industries of the region are automobile and chemical industries and power engineering. Famous heavy-duty trucks (large capacity lorries) are manufactured here.
The construction of Kama Automobile Works that started in 1971 gave birth to motor car construction as one of the main industries in Tatarstan. The city of Naberezhniye Chelny where KamAZ is located is the Republics second biggest city with population of over 500,000 people.
Nizhnekamsk is the main chemical centre of Tatarstan. Situated on the Kama, this city did not exist at all some 50 years ago. The local petrochemical plant, which developed into a production association, is among the largest of such enterprises both in our Republic and abroad.
The Southeast oil-extracting region. Our Republic is very rich in oil, which made it well-known in the world as a major oil-producing republic. It is oil that made Tatarstan an important centre of chemical and petrochemical industries. The main oil-producing towns are Leninogorsk, Almetyevsk and Bugulma.
4. The North, Central, South and Southwest parts of the Republic are rural agricultural regions. More than 15% of economically active populations are engaged in the agricultural sector. 4.5 min hectares of land are cultivated which is equal to 67% of the Republics territory. Main grain crops are spring wheat, rye, barley, oats. Fodder crops cover 36% of the sowing area. The Republic is also well-known for its cattle-breeding. Thereby agricultural is act the important role in the economy of Tatarstan.
5. The main part of foreign trade turnover of Tatarstan belongs to European countries, although business contacts with Asian countries have been expanding recently. Tatarstan exports oil and some 30 types, of petrochemical products, compressors, optical devices, KamAZ trucks including spare parts.
1. Kazan is one of the oldest cities on the Volga river, a city of more than one million people. It is situated exactly halfway along the Volga. The river changes its west-east course at Kazan whore it turns almost to south. The first mention of Kazan dates back to the 11th century. It was founded in 1005 by Bulgars, the ancestors of the Mari and Tatar people. The city is the geographical and historical centre of the Volga region.
2. Kazan has always been an acknowledged centre of science and culture. Along with the University, Kazan has 14 more higher educational establishments. The biggest is the Kazan University was founded in 1804. Knowledge which is given in Kazan University allows our students work in overseas. Because our system of educational is oldest and this is allow our give very quality knowledge.
3. The Kazan University (the third in Russia) was founded in 1804. The first rectors and professors of the University were world-known scientists, such as the founder of the non-Euclidean mathematics Lobachevsky and the founder of organic chemistry Butlerov. The Kazan University made great contribution to in Russian and world science also due to the efforts of such scientists as Ilochterev, Lesgaft, Mislaysky, K.Nasiry, Arbusov, Kamai, Mushtary and many, ninny others.
4. Cultural life of the capital is always rich and diverse. The citizens and guests of the city have at their disposal 6 theatres, a number of cinemas, museums (among them the Fine Arts museum), concert and exhibition halls. The Opera and Ballet Theatre named after M.Djalil is the largest and the most powerful of them. Many prominent singers and performers from this country tend abroad take part in festivals held in the theatre.
5. Townsman and guests can visit are following sporting arenas: Central Stadium, TatneftArena, Sport Complex “Sank Petersburg”. Also the citizens and guests of the city have at their disposal 6 theatres, a number of cinemas, museums (among them the Fine Arts museum), concert and exhibition halls. Sightseeing of Kazan which can visited are Kremlin, Qolsharif Mosque, tower of Suumbeke, different cathedrals, Bauman Street, Raif Cloister, different parks, monument of Mulanur, Tykay, Pushkin, Lenin, M.Djalil.
Система высшего образования в России и Великобритании
1. The system of higher education in the UK consists of: about 90 Universities, Polytechnics and 350 Colleges. And the system of higher education in the Russia consists of Institute and University.
2. In the UK all higher educational institutions (HEI) are independent, i.e. have their own government but they are not private. Lecturers and the staff are not Government employees unlike most European countries and the USA. In Russia Ministry of Education exercises total control and financing of higher educational institutions. But every University and Institution have their own Rector.
3. Only at Oxford and Cambridge they have entrance exams. To be admitted to other HEIs one must have a certain minimum entry requirement. For instance, the basic entry requirements for admission to Oxford Polytechnic undergraduate degree courses are passes in 5 subjects in GCE (general certificate of education): two at A-level and three at O-level. Pupils take the first one — O-level — when they are about 15.Most people take 0-level in about seven or eight different subjects. For a lot of jobs, such as nursing, you must have four or five 0-levels, and usually these must include English and Math. You may leave school when you are 15. But if you stay at school aft taking 0-level, you go into the sixth form and start working for the second ma exam: A-level. Most people take A-level when they are about eighteen. Universities accept students mainly on the basic of their “A” level results, although they may interview them as well.
In Russia after finishing the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceum or a gymnasium one can go on in higher education. All applicants must take competitive examinations. In simple time applicants must take single governmental examination and according results of this test applicants will be admit to the institutional.
4. In the UK normally, the course of studies lasts 3 years. Students may follow degree, diploma and certificate courses. After 3 years at a college a student may proceed to a Bachelors degree (a Degree or Honours Degree). After 2 years of studies a student gets HND (higher national diploma), after one-year course — HNC (higher national certificate). In Russia a course at an institute or a university usually takes 5 years programme of academic subjects for undergraduates in a variety of fields, as well as a graduate course. If one finishes a graduate course and writes a thesis, he or she receives the candidate degree, corresponding to the master’s degree, or the doctoral degree.
5. In the UK academic year usually runs from late September to early July and is divided into three equal terms, each of eleven weeks duration. Some colleges have no exams, just continuous assessment. At others there is a mixture of continuous assessment and exams. This encourages students to work hard throughout their courses, not just for their written exams. Many HEIs in the UK introduced an American Style credit accumulation system called the Modular Course . In Russia academic year runs from first September to early July and is divided into two equal semesters. In the end every semester students take an examination. Also students may write projects. After taking an examination students have one week of rest.
6. In the UK all students undertake a project in their final year. Some courses require students to undertake industrial experience for at least 16 weeks. In Russia all students write degree work in their final year. Also students undertake industrial experience.
7. Academic structure and administration of the UK: Vice-Chancellor is usually the head of the University, Chancellor is a nominative, non-academic figure (e.g. a public figure, the Queen). Vice Chancellor has under him four faculties: Arts, Social Science, Law and Medicine (the latter vary from University to University). Each faculty has its own elected Dean. A faculty comprises several Departments which, in their turn, consist of sections or sub-departments. In Russia educational establishments are headed by Rectors. Prorectors are in charge of academic and scientific work. An institute or a university has a number of faculties, each specializing in a field of study. Each faculty has its own Dean. Faculties have specialized councils which confer candidate and doctoral degrees. In institute or university include departments which separate by specialization.
8. In the UK hostel accommodations are provided only forthefirst-year students in one of the so called Halls of Residence. All overseas students are guaranteed on-campus accommodation. After the first year most students share houses rented by HEI or private houses. Although one flat may accommodate several students all have individual bedrooms. In Russia overseas students are guaranteed dormitory.
9. A full-time student gets 2,500 grants and some loan per year. Its enough to survive without working. But not all students receive full grants. The amount of grant depends on parent’s income. The richer the parents are, the less is the grant. In Russia unpaying students gets grants. The amount of grant depends on this you taken examination. If you taken examination on all 5, you gets one thousand seven hundred fifty rubles. If you got one 4, you gets one thousand one hundred rubles. If you got more one 4 you do not get grant.
10. In the UK there are following form of higher educational – full-time students and part-time students. One out of five young people in the UK go into higher education. Of them only 14% become full-time students. Mostly there are part-time students released from work for one day a week and getting partial support from employers, here is a special distance-learning institution — Open University established in 1968. In Russia university have full-time students and evening and extramural departments. They give their students an opportunity to study without leaving their jobs.
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